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Resource Conservation B.S.

Laurie Yung, Associate Professor, Resource Conservation Program Director

The challenging and rapidly evolving field of environmental conservation requires broad training and the ability to integrate and communicate across disciplines. Resource Conservation is an interdepartmental undergraduate major that prepares students for the diverse opportunities that now exist in environmental conservation, natural resource management, and sustainable livelihoods and communities. Students can choose a more structured area of study in the natural sciences, such as ecology or hydrology, or emphasize emerging sub-disciplines such as wildland fire management, natural resource economics, or climate and environmental change. Students can also integrate across disciplines and focus on environmental policy and natural resources planning, wilderness studies, sustainable livelihoods and community conservation, or international conservation.  For more information on different curricular tracks within the Resource Conservation major, please see:  www.cfc.umt.edu/rc.  In addition to degree requirements listed below, students selecting the Bachelor of Science in Resource Conservation should contact their faculty advisor to approve their curriculum.  

Bachelor of Science - Resource Conservation

College of Forestry & Conserv

Catalog Year: 2014-2015

Degree Specific Credits: 43

Required Cumulative GPA: 2.0


Professional Writing

Rule: Must take the following course

Show All Course Descriptions Course Credits
Show Description NRSM 200 - Nat.Resource Professional Wrtg
Offered fall and spring to College of Forestry and Conservation majors. Prereq., WRIT 101. Students synthesize scientific literature and, using appropriate evidence and APA style, write natural-resources-based documents appropriate for distribution to scientists, managers, and the public.
3 Credits
Minimum Required Grade: C- 3 Total Credits Required

Chemistry

Rule: Must take the following course

Note: null

Show All Course Descriptions Course Credits
Show Description CHMY 121N - Intro to General Chemistry
Offered autumn and spring. First semester of an introduction to general, inorganic, organic and biological chemistry.
3 Credits
Minimum Required Grade: C- 3 Total Credits Required

Quantitative and Spatial Analysis

Rule: Must take three of the following courses and one must be a statistics course (FORS 201, STAT 216 or SOCI 202)

Note: FORS 250 is highly recommended
Can take STAT 216 Statistics or SOCI 202 Social Statistics in place of FORS 201

Show All Course Descriptions Course Credits
Show Description FORS 201 - Forest Biometrics
Offered autumn. Prereq., M 115 or M 121 or M 122 or M 151 or M 162 or M 171 or M 172. Introduction to probability and statistical methods for forestry and environmental sciences covering natural resource applications of common probability distributions, data analysis, hypothesis testing, and regression.
3 Credits
Show Description FORS 250 - Intro to GIS for Forest Mgt
Offered every term. Open to sophomores or juniors or with consent of instructor. This course is designed as a practical introduction to the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for storing, retrieving, analyzing and displaying spatial data. It will also cover the history of cartography and the conventions of the modern map-making process.
3 Credits
Show Description M 115 - Probability and Linear Math
Offered every term. Prereq., M 090 with a grade of B- or better, or M 095, or ALEKS placement >= 3. Systems of linear equations and matrix algebra. Introduction to probability with emphasis on models and probabilistic reasoning. Examples of applications of the material in many fields.
3 Credits
Show Description M 121 - College Algebra
Offered autumn and spring. Prereq., M 095 or ALEKS placement >= 4. Intended to strengthen algebra skills. The study of functions and their inverses; polynomial, rational, exponential, and logarithmic functions. Credit not allowed for both M 121, and M 151.
3 Credits
Show Description M 122 - College Trigonometry
Offered autumn and spring. Prereq., M 121 or ALEKS placement >= 4. Preparation for calculus based on college algebra. Review of functions and their inverses. Trigonometric functions and identities, polar coordinates and an optional topic such as complex numbers, vectors or parametric equations. Credit not allowed for both M 122 and M 151.
3 Credits
Show Description M 151 - Precalculus
Offered autumn and spring. Prereq., ALEKS placement >= 4. A one semester preparation for calculus (as an alternative to M 121-122. Functions of one real variable are introduced in general and then applied to the usual elementary functions, namely polynomial and rational functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, trigonometric functions, and miscellaneous others. Inverse functions, polar coordinates and trigonometric identities are included. Credit not allowed for both M 151 and M 121 or 122.
4 Credits
Show Description M 162 - Applied Calculus
Offered autumn and spring. Prereq., ALEKS placement >= 5 or one of M 121, 122 or 151. Introductory course surveying the principal ideas of differential and integral calculus with emphasis on applications and computer software. Mathematical modeling in discrete and continuous settings. Intended primarily for students who do not plan to take higher calculus.
4 Credits
Minimum Required Grade: C- 9 Total Credits Required

Biology

Rule: Must take one couse from below

Show All Course Descriptions Course Credits
Show Description BIOB 160N - Principles of Living Systems
Offered autumn and summer.  Unifying principles of biological structure-function relationships at different levels of organization and complexity. Consideration of reproduction, genetics, development, evolution, ecosystems, as well as the inter-relationships of the human species to the rest of life.  Lab experiences illustrate biological principles underlying growth, reproduction, development, genetics and physiology.  Credit not allowed for both BIOB 101N and 160N.
4 Credits
Show Description BIOB 170N - Princpls Biological Diversity
Offered spring and summer.  Survey of the diversity, evolution and ecology of life including prokaryotes, viruses, protista, fungi, plants and animals.
3 Credits
Show Description BIOE 172N - Introductory Ecology
Offered autumn.  An introduction to ecological principles, stressing the structure and function of natural communities and examining human's role in these ecosystems.
3 Credits
Show Description BIOO 105N - Introduction to Botany
Offered spring.  Introduction to the plant kingdom including anatomy, physiology and ecology.
3 Credits
Minimum Required Grade: C- 3-4 Total Credits Required

Communication

Rule: Must take one course from below

Show All Course Descriptions Course Credits
Show Description COMX 111A - Intro to Public Speaking
Offered every term. Preparation, presentation, and criticism of speeches. Emphasis on the development of public speaking techniques through constructive criticism. Credit not allowed for both COMM 111A and COM 160A.
3 Credits
Show Description THTR 120A - Introduction to Acting I
Offered every term. An introduction to the skills and techniques required of the actor to be effective in communication with others on stage and off stage.
3 Credits
Minimum Required Grade: C- 3 Total Credits Required

Physical Science

Rule: Must take the following course

Show All Course Descriptions Course Credits
Show Description NRSM 210N - Soils, Water and Climate
Prereq., M 115 or M 121 or M 122 or M 151 or M 162 or M 171 or M 172. The factors affecting earth’s terrestrial ecosystems are rapidly changing, and understanding their impact on ecosystem services to humanity is becoming increasingly important and yet complex. In this course, students will explore how climate, water and soils interact to shape Earth’s biosphere. We will introduce students to a number of fundamental concepts in climate, hydrology, and soil science to gain a comprehensive view of the factors that shape and affect all terrestrial ecosystems. Through a series of lectures and field-based laboratories, students will be introduced to the fundamental principles of climate and hydrology that influence soil development, how they vary across small spatial scales, and how these physical, chemical, and biological processes interact to affect soil development. Ultimately, this class will introduce students to intimate relationship between climate, water, and soils, and how they interact to affect patterns of vegetation we see across the biosphere.
3 Credits
Minimum Required Grade: C- 3 Total Credits Required

Ecology

Rule: Must take one course from below

Show All Course Descriptions Course Credits
Show Description BIOE 370 - General Ecology
Offered autumn. Prereq., BIOB 272. Analysis of the distribution and abundance of plants and animals. Includes individual, population and community-level processes (e.g., population growth and regulation, competition, predation, succession, nutrient cycling, energy flow and community organization).
3 Credits
Show Description FORS 330 - Forest Ecology
Offered autumn and spring. Prereq., FORS 210 or ENSC 245N or NRSM 210N; and BIOO 105N or BIOB 170N or BIOE 172 or BIOB 160N or FORS 240; and FORS 201 or STAT 216 or SOCI 202 or WILD 240 or PSYX 222. Examination of physical and biological factors affecting forest structure, composition, and function, including biodiversity, disturbance, and nutrient cycling. Field labs throughout Northern Rockies including developing skills in field observation, data interpretation and problem solving.
3 Credits
Show Description NRSM 462 - Rangeland Ecology
Offered spring. We will discuss the ecological principles and processes that drive the structure and function of rangeland ecosystems. We will focus on the intersections of plant, animal, ecosystem, and landscape ecology. We will weave in discussions of management to understand how rangeland dynamics contribute and respond to differing management paradigms.
3 Credits
Minimum Required Grade: C- 3 Total Credits Required

Policy

Rule: Must take one course from below

Show All Course Descriptions Course Credits
Show Description NRSM 370S - Wildland Conserv Pol/Govrnance
Offered autumn and spring. Examination of the historical, philosophical, and legislative background for development and management of our national system of wilderness areas, wild and scenic rivers, trails, and national parks; their place in our social structure. Part of the Wilderness and Civilization program.
3 Credits
Show Description NRSM 422 - Nat Res Policy/Administration
Offered autumn and spring. Policy formation in the United States and a survey of the major resource policies interpreted in their historical and political contexts.
3 Credits
Show Description WILD 410 - Wildlife Policy & Biopolitics
Offered autumn. Prereq., junior standing. Overview of the laws affecting wildlife and how those laws are initiated, implemented, and enforced; impact of politics, interest groups, and agency jurisdictions.
3 Credits
Minimum Required Grade: C- 3 Total Credits Required

Social Science

Rule: Must take one course from below

Show All Course Descriptions Course Credits
Show Description NRSM 379 - Collab in Nat Res Decisions
Offered autumn. Political and social processes affecting natural resource decisions. Examination of cases of multi-party collaboration in forestry, range, and watershed management issues.
3 Credits
Show Description NRSM 424 - Community Forestry & Conservtn
Offered spring. Co-convened with NRSM 524. In-depth examination of the history, theory and management issues faced in community-driven forestry and conservation in the United States and abroad.  Cannot get credit for both NRSM 424 and NRSM 524.
3 Credits
Show Description NRSM 426 - Climate and Society
Offered spring. Co-convened with NRSM 526. This course examines the social and political aspects of climate change, with a focus on international and domestic processes and cases. Cannot get credit for both NRSM 426 and NRSM 526.
3 Credits
Show Description NRSM 475 - Environment & Development
Offered spring. Co-convened with NRSM 575. Examines key social forces that influence how individuals, groups and nation-states understand and live within their bio-physical environments, especially policies and processes relating to development, corporate capitalism, globalization, culture, class and other forms of power and social relations. Pays close attention to ways both indigenous and introduced resource use and management practices (including conservation) variably impact people of different races, classes, genders, cultures and livelihood practices. Cannot get credit for both NRSM 475 and NRSM 575.
3 Credits
Show Description PTRM 300 - Recreation Behavior
Offere spring. Prereq., PTRM 217S. This course provides an understanding of recreation behavior in wildland and nature-based tourism oriented settings. Students will learn about theories/conceptual frameworks from social and environmental psychology and their application to visitor management issues in the wildland recreation and nature-base tourism fields.
3 Credits
Minimum Required Grade: C- 3 Total Credits Required

Ethics

Rule: Must take one course from below

Show All Course Descriptions Course Credits
Show Description NRSM 449E - Climate Change Ethics/Policy
Offered autumn. Same as CCS 449E. This course focuses on the ethical dimensions of climate change policy. It will cover the following major topics: (1) climate change, personal and collective responsibilities, (2) ethics, climate change and scientific uncertainty, (3) distributive justice and international climate change negotiations, (4) intergenerational justice and climate change policy.
3 Credits
Show Description NRSM 489E - Ethics Forestry & Conservation
Offered autumn. Prereq., lower division course in Perspective 5 or consent of instr.; senior standing.  Theoretical and practical ethical issues affecting the management of natural resources in national forests and on other public lands.
3 Credits
Minimum Required Grade: C- 3 Total Credits Required

Additional Required Courses

Rule: Must take at least 36 traditional letter-graded credits from the College of Forestry and Conservation (NRSM, WILD, FORS, PTRM, CCS 103, CCS 352, CCS 391)

Minimum Required Grade: C-

Writing

Rule: Must take both lower-division courses ( WRIT 101 and NRSM 200) and at least 3 courses at the upper-division level listed below

Note: The following courses count for the entire upper-division writing requirement (only one course is required): PTRM 451W Tourism and Sustainability, PTRM 482W Wilderness and Protected Area Mgmt.

Show All Course Descriptions Course Credits
Show Description BIOE 428 - Freshwater Ecology
Offered autumn. Prereq., BIOB 160N and either CHMY 123N or 143N.  Physical and chemical dynamics of lakes and streams. Diversity, distribution and dynamics of freshwater organisms.
5 Credits
Show Description FORS 330 - Forest Ecology
Offered autumn and spring. Prereq., FORS 210 or ENSC 245N or NRSM 210N; and BIOO 105N or BIOB 170N or BIOE 172 or BIOB 160N or FORS 240; and FORS 201 or STAT 216 or SOCI 202 or WILD 240 or PSYX 222. Examination of physical and biological factors affecting forest structure, composition, and function, including biodiversity, disturbance, and nutrient cycling. Field labs throughout Northern Rockies including developing skills in field observation, data interpretation and problem solving.
3 Credits
Show Description FORS 341 - Timber Harvesting & Roads
Offered spring. Prereq., NRSM 200 or WRIT 222. An overview of harvesting system capabilities and selection for multiple resource objectives. Fundamentals of forest road management. Best management practices as they apply to forest operations in Montana and the western United States.
3 Credits
Show Description FORS 342 - Wood Anatomy, Properties, & ID
Offered spring. Prereq., BIOO 105N or FORS 240 or FORS 241N. Lecture and laboratory investigation of the structure, identification and physical and mechanical properties of the commercial tree species of North America.
3 Credits
Show Description FORS 347 - Multiple Resource Silviculture
Offered spring. Prereq., FORS 330 or BIOE 370. Credit not allowed for both FORS 347 and 349. An introduction to the concepts and application of silvicultural techniques to forest ecosystems to meet multiple resource objectives.
3 Credits
Show Description FORS 349 - Practice of Silviculture
Offered fall. Prereq., FORS 202 or FORS 302 and FORS 241. Coreq., FORS 330. Practice of Silviculture is designed primarily for Forestry majors (open to others with appropriate prerequisites), and will consider the conceptual foundations behind various silvicultural practices and techniques, as well as and their application in forest ecosystems to meet multiple resource objectives. The course will cover natural stand dynamics, stand assessment and site classification schemes, even- and uneven-aged silvicultural systems, thinning/stand density concepts, regeneration practices, stand diagnosis and prescription development, vegetative management strategies for diverse objectives, along with quantitative assessment and modeling of alternative prescriptions.
3 Credits
Show Description FORS 440 - Forest Stand Management
Offered autumn. Prereq., FORS 202 or 302; FORS 341; FORS 347 or 349. The management and manipulation of forest stands to reach multiple objectives, with a focus on the planning of forest operations for a community partner.
3 Credits
Show Description FORS 499 - Senior Thesis
Offered autumn and spring. Prereq., senior standing and consent of instr. Preparation of a major paper based on study or research in a field selected according to the needs and objectives of the student.
1 To 3 Credits
Show Description NASX 403 - Contmp Tribal Resource Issues
Offered intermittently. Acquaints students with contemporary tribal resource management and environmental policies.
3 Credits
Show Description NRSM 200 - Nat.Resource Professional Wrtg
Offered fall and spring to College of Forestry and Conservation majors. Prereq., WRIT 101. Students synthesize scientific literature and, using appropriate evidence and APA style, write natural-resources-based documents appropriate for distribution to scientists, managers, and the public.
3 Credits
Show Description NRSM 379 - Collab in Nat Res Decisions
Offered autumn. Political and social processes affecting natural resource decisions. Examination of cases of multi-party collaboration in forestry, range, and watershed management issues.
3 Credits
Show Description NRSM 444 - Ecological RestorationCapstone
Offered spring. Prereq., junior or senior standing in Wildland Restoration and successful completion of NRSM 265 and one advanced ecology course: BIOE 370, BIOE 428, BIOE 447, BIOE 448, FORS 330, or NRSM 462; and completion or concurrent enrollment in NRSM 365. This service-learning course teaches students about designing and implementing restoration and monitoring projects. The course includes lectures, labs, and hands-on experience working with ecologists and restoration practitioners from local government agencies, NGOs, or other organizations.
5 Credits
Show Description NRSM 462 - Rangeland Ecology
Offered spring. We will discuss the ecological principles and processes that drive the structure and function of rangeland ecosystems. We will focus on the intersections of plant, animal, ecosystem, and landscape ecology. We will weave in discussions of management to understand how rangeland dynamics contribute and respond to differing management paradigms.
3 Credits
Show Description NRSM 475 - Environment & Development
Offered spring. Co-convened with NRSM 575. Examines key social forces that influence how individuals, groups and nation-states understand and live within their bio-physical environments, especially policies and processes relating to development, corporate capitalism, globalization, culture, class and other forms of power and social relations. Pays close attention to ways both indigenous and introduced resource use and management practices (including conservation) variably impact people of different races, classes, genders, cultures and livelihood practices. Cannot get credit for both NRSM 475 and NRSM 575.
3 Credits
Show Description NRSM 489E - Ethics Forestry & Conservation
Offered autumn. Prereq., lower division course in Perspective 5 or consent of instr.; senior standing.  Theoretical and practical ethical issues affecting the management of natural resources in national forests and on other public lands.
3 Credits
Show Description NRSM 495 - Ecological Restor Practicum
(R-6) Offered every semester. Prereq., senior standing in the WLR major and successful completion of NRSM 444 (FOR 444), a faculty-approved practicum proposal; and consent of instructor.  The goal of this service-learning practicum is for students to gain real-world experience in the practice of ecological restoration. Students will implement aspects of a restoration or monitoring plan for a local management agency, organization or other sponsor.
3 To 6 Credits
Show Description NRSM 499 - Senior Thesis
(R-3) Offered autumn and spring. Prereq., senior standing and consent of instr. Preparation of a major paper based on study or research in a field selected according to the needs and objectives of the student.
1 To 3 Credits
Show Description PTRM 300 - Recreation Behavior
Offere spring. Prereq., PTRM 217S. This course provides an understanding of recreation behavior in wildland and nature-based tourism oriented settings. Students will learn about theories/conceptual frameworks from social and environmental psychology and their application to visitor management issues in the wildland recreation and nature-base tourism fields.
3 Credits
Show Description WILD 410 - Wildlife Policy & Biopolitics
Offered autumn. Prereq., junior standing. Overview of the laws affecting wildlife and how those laws are initiated, implemented, and enforced; impact of politics, interest groups, and agency jurisdictions.
3 Credits
Show Description WRIT 101 - College Writing I
UM: Offered every term. Prereq., WRIT 095 or proof of passing score on writing diagnostic examination, referral by WRIT 095 instructor-SAT writing score at or above 440, MUSWA at or above 3.5, SAT/ACT essay score at or above 7, or ACT Combined English/Writing score at or above 18. Expository prose and research paper; emphasis on structure, argument, development of ideas, clarity, style, and diction. Students expected to write without major faults in grammar or usage. Credit not allowed for both WRIT 101 and COM 101. Grading A-F, or NC (no credit). MC: Offered every term. Prereq., WRIT 095 or proof of appropriate SAT/ACT essay, English/Writing, writing section scores, appropriate MUSWA scores, or proof of passing scores on Writing Placement Exam). Expository prose and research paper; emphasis on structure, argument, development of ideas, clarity, style, and diction. Students expected to write without major faults in grammar or usage. Grading A-F, or NC (no credit).
3 Credits
Minimum Required Grade: C- 15 Total Credits Required

Math

Rule: Must take one course from below

Show All Course Descriptions Course Credits
Show Description M 115 - Probability and Linear Math
Offered every term. Prereq., M 090 with a grade of B- or better, or M 095, or ALEKS placement >= 3. Systems of linear equations and matrix algebra. Introduction to probability with emphasis on models and probabilistic reasoning. Examples of applications of the material in many fields.
3 Credits
Show Description M 121 - College Algebra
Offered autumn and spring. Prereq., M 095 or ALEKS placement >= 4. Intended to strengthen algebra skills. The study of functions and their inverses; polynomial, rational, exponential, and logarithmic functions. Credit not allowed for both M 121, and M 151.
3 Credits
Show Description M 122 - College Trigonometry
Offered autumn and spring. Prereq., M 121 or ALEKS placement >= 4. Preparation for calculus based on college algebra. Review of functions and their inverses. Trigonometric functions and identities, polar coordinates and an optional topic such as complex numbers, vectors or parametric equations. Credit not allowed for both M 122 and M 151.
3 Credits
Show Description M 151 - Precalculus
Offered autumn and spring. Prereq., ALEKS placement >= 4. A one semester preparation for calculus (as an alternative to M 121-122. Functions of one real variable are introduced in general and then applied to the usual elementary functions, namely polynomial and rational functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, trigonometric functions, and miscellaneous others. Inverse functions, polar coordinates and trigonometric identities are included. Credit not allowed for both M 151 and M 121 or 122.
4 Credits
Show Description M 162 - Applied Calculus
Offered autumn and spring. Prereq., ALEKS placement >= 5 or one of M 121, 122 or 151. Introductory course surveying the principal ideas of differential and integral calculus with emphasis on applications and computer software. Mathematical modeling in discrete and continuous settings. Intended primarily for students who do not plan to take higher calculus.
4 Credits
Minimum Required Grade: C- 3-4 Total Credits Required

Symbolic System

Rule: Must take one course from below

Show All Course Descriptions Course Credits
Show Description FORS 201 - Forest Biometrics
Offered autumn. Prereq., M 115 or M 121 or M 122 or M 151 or M 162 or M 171 or M 172. Introduction to probability and statistical methods for forestry and environmental sciences covering natural resource applications of common probability distributions, data analysis, hypothesis testing, and regression.
3 Credits
Show Description SOCI 202 - Social Statistics
Offered every term. Prereq., or coreq. M 115, Sociology majors only, or consent of instr. Application of descriptive and inferential statistical techniques to sociological data. Required of all majors.
3 Credits
Show Description STAT 216 - Introduction to Statistics
Offered autumn and spring. Prereq., M 115 (preferred), or one of M 121, 135, 151, 162 or 171, or ALEKS placement >= 4. Introduction to major ideas of statistical inference. Emphasis is on statistical reasoning and uses of statistics.
4 Credits
Minimum Required Grade: C- 3-4 Total Credits Required

Expressive Arts

Rule: Must take the one course from below

Show All Course Descriptions Course Credits
Show Description COMX 111A - Intro to Public Speaking
Offered every term. Preparation, presentation, and criticism of speeches. Emphasis on the development of public speaking techniques through constructive criticism. Credit not allowed for both COMM 111A and COM 160A.
3 Credits
Show Description THTR 120A - Introduction to Acting I
Offered every term. An introduction to the skills and techniques required of the actor to be effective in communication with others on stage and off stage.
3 Credits
Minimum Required Grade: C- 3 Total Credits Required

Ethical & Human Values

Rule: Must take one course from below

Show All Course Descriptions Course Credits
Show Description NRSM 449E - Climate Change Ethics/Policy
Offered autumn. Same as CCS 449E. This course focuses on the ethical dimensions of climate change policy. It will cover the following major topics: (1) climate change, personal and collective responsibilities, (2) ethics, climate change and scientific uncertainty, (3) distributive justice and international climate change negotiations, (4) intergenerational justice and climate change policy.
3 Credits
Show Description NRSM 489E - Ethics Forestry & Conservation
Offered autumn. Prereq., lower division course in Perspective 5 or consent of instr.; senior standing.  Theoretical and practical ethical issues affecting the management of natural resources in national forests and on other public lands.
3 Credits
Minimum Required Grade: C- 3 Total Credits Required

Natural Sciences in Major

Rule: Must take all courses

Show All Course Descriptions Course Credits
Show Description CHMY 121N - Intro to General Chemistry
Offered autumn and spring. First semester of an introduction to general, inorganic, organic and biological chemistry.
3 Credits
Show Description NRSM 210N - Soils, Water and Climate
Prereq., M 115 or M 121 or M 122 or M 151 or M 162 or M 171 or M 172. The factors affecting earth’s terrestrial ecosystems are rapidly changing, and understanding their impact on ecosystem services to humanity is becoming increasingly important and yet complex. In this course, students will explore how climate, water and soils interact to shape Earth’s biosphere. We will introduce students to a number of fundamental concepts in climate, hydrology, and soil science to gain a comprehensive view of the factors that shape and affect all terrestrial ecosystems. Through a series of lectures and field-based laboratories, students will be introduced to the fundamental principles of climate and hydrology that influence soil development, how they vary across small spatial scales, and how these physical, chemical, and biological processes interact to affect soil development. Ultimately, this class will introduce students to intimate relationship between climate, water, and soils, and how they interact to affect patterns of vegetation we see across the biosphere.
3 Credits
Minimum Required Grade: C- 6 Total Credits Required