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-- the economics of geoengineering proposals --

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Azar, C. & Schneider, S. H. (2002). Are the economic costs of stabilizing the atmosphere prohibitive? Ecological Economics 42, 73-80.


Barrett, S. (2008). The incredible economics of  geoengineering. Environmental and Resource Economics, 39, 45-54.

Bickel, E. J. & Agrawal, S. (2012). Reexamining the economics of aerosol geoengineering. Climatic Change. DOI 10.1007/s10584-012-0619-x [Online]

Biello, D. (2009). Pulling CO2 from the air: Promising idea, big price tag. Yale Environment 360 [Online]. 


Emmerling, J., Tavoni, M. (2013). Geoengineering and abatement: A ’flat’ relationship under uncertainty. (Climate Change and Sustainable Development series). Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei. [Online]


Gawel, E., Heuson, C. (2012). Ökonomische Grundfragen der Klimaanpassung (Fundamental questions on the economics of climate adaptation). Wirtschaftsdienst 92(7), S. 480–487. [Online]

Goes, M., Keller, K., & Tuana, N. (2009). The economics (or lack thereof) of aerosol engineering. Climatic Change, 109(3), 719-744. [Online]

Goeschl, T. Heyen, D., Moreno-Cruz, J. B. (2013). The Intergenerational Transfer of Solar Radiation Management Capabilities and Atmospheric Carbon Stocks. University of Heidelberg Discussion Paper Series (540). [Online]


Heartland Institute. (2007). Geo-engineering seen as a practical, cost-effective global warming strategy. Heartlander [Online]. 

House, K. J., Baclic, A. C., Ranjan, M., van Nierop, E. A., Wilcox, J., & Herzog, H. J. (2011). Economic and energetic analysis of capturing CO2 from ambient air. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, 108(51), 20428-20433. [Online]


Keith, D. W. & Dowlatabadi, H. (1992). A serious look at geoengineering. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 73, 289-293.

Kintisch, E. (2010). Climate hacking for profit: a good way to go broke. Fortune. [Online

Klepper, G. (2012). What are the costs and benefits of climate engineering? And can we assess them?. Sicherheit und Frieden, 2012:4.

Klepper, G. Rickels, W. (2012). The real economics of climate engineering. Economics Research International, 1–20. [Online]

Klima, K. et al. (2011). Does it make sense to modify tropical cyclones? A decision-analytic assessment. Environmental Science & Technology, 45, 4242-4246.

Kriegler, E., Edenhofer, O., Reuster, L., Luderer, G., Klein, D. (2013). Is atmospheric carbon dioxide removal a game changer for climate change mitigation? Climatic Change. [Online]

Kosugi, T. (2012). Fail-safe solar radiation management geoengineering. Mitigation and Adaptive Strategies for Global Change. [Online]


Leinen, M. (2008). Building relationships between scientists and business in ocean iron fertilization. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 364, 251-256.

Levinson, R. & Akbari, H. (2010). Potential benefits of cool roofs on commercial buildings: Conserving energy, saving money, and reducing emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. Energy Efficiency, 3, 53-109.


McCarl, B. et al. (2009). Economics of biochar production, utilization and greenhouse gas offsets. In J.Lehmann & S. Joseph (Eds.), Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology (pp. 341-356). London, England: Earthscan.

McClellan, J. et al. (2010). Geoengineering Cost Analysis. (Rep. No. AR10-182). Aurora Flight Service.

McClellan, J., Keith, D. W., Apt, J. (2012). Cost analysis of stratospheric albedo modification delivery systems. Environmental Research Letters, 7(3), 34019. [Online]

McGlashan, N., Shah, N., Caldecott, B., Workman, M. (2012). High-level techno-economic assessment of negative emissions technologies. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 90(6), 501-510. [Online]

McLaren, D. (2011). Negatonnes—An initial assessment of the potential for negative emission techniques to contribute safely and fairly to meeting carbon budgets in the 21st century. [Online]

McLaren, D. (2012). A comparative global assessment of potential negative emissions technologies. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 90(6), 489-500. [Online]


Pauly, M. V. (1968). The economics of moral hazard: Comment. American Economic Review, 58(3), 531-537.

Pielke Jr., R. (2009). A Perspective Paper on Climate Engineering. Copenhagen Consensus Center.

Pielke, Jr. R. A. (2009). An idealized assessment of the economics of air capture of carbon dioxide in mitigation policy. Environmental Science & Policy, 12, 216-225.

Powell, H. (2008). Dumping iron and trading carbon. Oceanus, 46, 22-25.


Rickels, W., Rehdanz, K., & Oschlies, A. (2009). Economic prospects of ocean iron fertilization in an international carbon market (Rep. No. 1573).

Rickels, W., Rehdanz, K., & Oschlies, A. (2010). Methods for greenhouse gas offset accounting: A case study of ocean iron fertilization. Ecological Economics, 69, 2495-2509.


Sagarin, R. et al. (2007). Iron Fertilization in the Ocean for Climate Mitigation: Legal, Economic, and Environmental Challenges. The Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions at Duke University.

Schelling, T. C. (1996). The economic diplomacy of geoengineering. Climatic Change, 33, 303-307.

Shoji, K. & Jones, I. S. F. (2001). The costing of carbon credits from ocean nourishment plants. Science of the Total Environment, 277, 27-31.

Socolow, R. et al. (2011). Direct Air Capture of CO2 with Chemicals: A Technology Assessment for the APS Panel on Public Affairs. American Physical Society [Online].

Stilgoe, J. (2011). A question of intent. Nature: Climate Change [Online]. 

Stolaroff, J. K. (2006). Capturing CO2 from ambient air: A feasibility assessment. Carnegie Mellon University.


Teller, E., Wood, L., & Hyde R. (1997). Global Warming and Ice Ages: I. Prospects for Physics Based Modulation of Global Change  (Rep. No. UCRL-JC-128715). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.


Weitzman, M. (December, 2012). A Voting Architecture for the Governance of Free-Driver Externalities, with Application to Geoengineering (NBER Working Paper No. 18622). The National Bureau of Economic Research: Environmental and Energy Economics. [Online

Whitman, T., Scholz, S. M., & Lehmann, J. (2010). Biochar projects for mitigating climate change: An investigation of critical methodology issues for carbon accounting. Carbon Management, 1, 89-107.


Zhou, S. & Flynn, P. C. (2005). Geoengineering downwelling ocean currents: A cost assessment. Climatic Change, 71, 203-220.

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