Governance & Society


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Abate, R. (2011). A tale of two carbon sinks: Can forest carbon management serve as a framework to implement ocean iron fertilization as a climate change treaty compliance mechanism? Seattle Journal of Environmental Law. [Online

Abelkop, A. D. K., & Carlson, J. C. (2012). Reining in Phaëthon's chariot: Principles for the governance of geoengineering. Transnational Law & Contemporary Problems, 21, 101-145. [Online]

Adger, W. N., Agrawala, S., Mirza, M. M. Q., Conde, C., O’Brien, K., Pulhin, J., … Takahashi, K. (2007). Assessment of adaptation practices, options, constraints andcapacity. In M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, & C. E. Hanson (Eds.), Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (pp. 717-743). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Aldhous, P. (2011). Call for Arctic geoengineering as soon as possible. New Scientist. [Online 

Allenby, B. (2010). Climate change negotiations and geoengineering: Is this really the best we can do?. Environmental Quality Mangement. [Online]  

Amelung, D., Dietz, W., Fernow, H., Heyen, D., Reichwein, D., Wiertz, T. (2012). Beyond calculation. Climate Engineering risks from a social sciences perspective. Heidelberg (Forum Marsilius-Kolleg, 2). [Online]

American Meteorological Society. (2009). Geoengineering the climate system: A policy statement of the American Meteorological Society. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 90, 1369-1370. 

Anaya, S. J. (2004). Indigenous peoples in international law (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Anderson, K. & Bows, A. (2008). Reframing the climate change challenge in light of post-2000 emission trends. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 366, 3863-3882.

Azar, C. & Schneider, S. H. (2002). Are the economic costs of stabilizing the atmosphere prohibitive? Ecological Economics 42, 73-80.



Bannerjee, B. (2010, September). ENMOD squad: Could an obscure treaty protect developing countries from geoengineering gone wrong?. Slate. [Online]

Banerjee, B. (2011). The limitations of geoengineering governance in a world of uncertainty. Stanford Journal of Law, Science & Policy, May, 15–36.

Barnett, J. & Adger, W. N. (2007). Climate change, human security, and violent conflict. Political Geography, 26, 639-655.

Barrett, S. (2008). The incredible economics of  geoengineering. Environmental and Resource Economics, 39, 45-54.

Barrett, S. (2014).  Solar geoengineering's brave new world: Thoughts on the governance of an unprecedented technology. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy. doi:10.1093/reep/reu011.

Bellamy, R., Chilvers, J., Vaughan, N. E., Lenton, T. M. (2012). A review of climate geoengineering appraisals. WIREs Climate Change 3(6), 597–615. [Online]

Benedick, R. (2011). Considerations on governance for climate remediation technologies: Lessons from the "ozone hole." Stanford Journal of Law, Science & Policy. [Online]

Bergmann, S. (2009). Climate change changes religion: Space, spirit, ritual, technology—through a theological lens. Studia Theologica, 83, 98-118.

Bertram, C. (2010). Ocean iron fertilization in the context of the Kyoto protocol and the post-Kyoto process. Energy Policy, 38, 1130-1139.

Bertrand, V. (2002). Governing for the environment: Global problems, ethics, and democracy. Ethics and International Affairs 16, 164-68.

Bhattacharya, A. (2009). Germany clears Indo-German Antarctic expedition. The Times of India. [Online]

Bickel, E. J. & Agrawal, S. (2012). Reexamining the economics of aerosol geoengineering. Climatic Change. DOI 10.1007/s10584-012-0619-x [Online]

Biello, D. (2009). Pulling CO2 from the air: Promising idea, big price tag. Yale Environment 360 [Online]. 

Birnie, P., Boyle, A., & Redgwell, C. (2009). International law and the environment (3rd ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Blackstock, J. & Long, L. (2010). The politics of geoengineering. Science, 327(5965), 527.

Blackstock, J., Miller, C., Rayner, S. (eds.) (2015). Geoengineering our climate: Ethics, politics, and governance (Earthscan Science in Society Series) Routledge.

Bodansky, D. (1996). May we engineer the climate? Climatic Change, 33, 309-321.

Bodansky, D. (2011). Governing Climate Engineering: Scenarios for Analysis. Harvard Project on Climate Agreements, The Harvard Kennedy School (Rep. No. 11-47). [Online]

Bodansky, D. (2012). The who, what, and wherefore of geoengineering governance. Climatic Change 121 (3): 539–51. [Online]

Bodle, R. (2012). Geoengineering and International Law: The search for common legal ground. Tulsa Law Review, 46, 305-322.

Bond, P. (2010). Climate debt owed to Africa: What to demand and how to collect?. Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal. Retrieved from

Boucher, O., Lowe, J. A., & Jones, C. D. (2009). Implications of delayed actions in addressing carbon dioxide emission reduction in the context of geo-engineering. Climatic Change, 92, 261-273.

Boyd, P. W. (2009). Geopolitics of geoengineering. Nature Geoscience, 2, 812.

Bracmort, K., Lattanzio, R. K., & Barbour, E. C. (2010). Geoengineering: Governance and Technology Policy (Rep. No. 7-5700).

Brainard, L., Jones, A., & Purvis, N. (Eds.). (2009). Climate Change and Global Poverty: A Billion Lives in the Balance? Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.

Bronson, D. (2010). Governing geoengineering or geoengineering governance?. The Geoengineering Quarterly. [Online]

Buck, H. J. (2012). Geoengineering: Remaking climate for profit or humanitarian intervention?. Development and Change, 43(1), 253-270. [Online]

Burns, W. C. G. (2012). Geoengineering the climate: An overview of solar radiation management options. Tulsa Law Review, 46, 283-304.

Burns, W. C. G. & Strauss, A. (Eds). (2013).  Climate Change Geoengineering: Philosophical Perspectives, Legal Issues, and Governance Frameworks.  Cambridge University Press.


Caney, S. (2008). Human rights, climate change, and discounting. Environmental Politics, 17(4), 536-555.

Carlarne, C. (2011). Arctic dreams and geoengineering wishes: The collateral damage of climate change. Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 49, 603-669. [Online]

Carlin, A. (2006). Implementation and utilization of geoengineering for global climate change control. Sustainable Development Law & Policy, 7, 56-58.

Carlson, A. (2012). Geoengineering and Conflicts of Interest? Legal Planet. [Online]

Cascio, J. (2009). Hacking the Earth. Self-Published.

Chamorro, P. S. & Hammond, E. (2009). Addressing Environmental Modification in Post-Cold War Conflict: The Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques (ENMOD) and Related Agreements. The Edmonds Institute.

Corner, A. & Pidgeon, N. (2010). Geoengineering the climate: The social and ethical implications. Environment, 52(1), 24-37.

Crutzen, P. (2006). Albedo enhancement by stratospheric sulfur injections: A contribution to resolve a policy dilemma?. Climate Change, 77, 211-219. [Online] 

Curvelo, P. (2012). Exploring the ethics of geoengineering through images. The International Journal of the Image 2(2), 177–198. [Online]


Davies, G. (2009). Law and policy issues of unilateral geoengineering: Moving to a managed world. Unpublished paper. [Online

Davies, G. (2010). Geoengineering the climate: Science, governance and uncertainty. Climate Law, 1 

Davies, G. (2012). Framing the social, political, and environmental risks and benefits of geoengineering: Balancing the hard-to-imagine against the hard-to-measure. Tulsa Law Review, 46, 261-282.

Davis, W. D. (2009). What does going green mean?: Anthropogenic climate change, geoengineering, and international environmental law. Georgia Law Review, 43, 901-951.

Dean, C. (2011, October 4). Group urges research into aggressive efforts to fight climate change. New York Times, p. A18.

Donner, S. D. (2007). Domain of the gods: An editorial essay. Climatic Change, 85, 231-236. [Online

Dörries, M. (2010). Climate catastrophes and fear. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 1(6), 885-890.


Eick, M. (2012). A navigational system for uncharted waters: The London Convention and London Protocols assessment framework on ocean iron fertilization. Tulsa Law Review, 46, 351-371.

Emmerling, J., Tavoni, M. (2013). Geoengineering and abatement: A ’flat’ relationship under uncertainty. (Climate Change and Sustainable Development series). Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei. [Online]


Fecht, S. (2011). U.K. Geoengineering Tests Delayed until Spring. Scientific American (blog). [Online

Fleming, J. R. (2012). Will geoengineering bring security and peace? What does history tell us? Sicherheit und Frieden, 2012:4.

Fleming, J. R. (2010). Fixing the sky: The checkered history of weather and climate control. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Fleming, J. R. (2007). The climate engineers. Wilson Quarterly, Spring, 46-60.

Fleming, J. R. (2006). The pathological history of weather and climate modification: Three cycles of promise and hype. Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, 37(1), 3-25.

Freestone, D. & Lyster, R. (2008). Ocean iron fertilization and international law. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 364, 227-233.


Gawel, E., Heuson, C. (2012). Ökonomische Grundfragen der Klimaanpassung (Fundamental questions on the economics of climate adaptation). Wirtschaftsdienst 92(7), S. 480–487. [Online]

Gersmann, H. (2011). Public supports geoengineering research, survey finds. [Online

Ginzky, H. (2010). Ocean fertilization as climate change mitigation measure: Consideration under international law. Journal of European Environmental & Planning Law, 7, 57-78.

Goes, M., Keller, K., & Tuana, N. (2009). The economics (or lack thereof) of aerosol engineering. Climatic Change, 109(3), 719-744. [Online]

Goeschl, T. Heyen, D., Moreno-Cruz, J. B. (2013). The Intergenerational Transfer of Solar Radiation Management Capabilities and Atmospheric Carbon Stocks. University of Heidelberg Discussion Paper Series (540). [Online]

Gordon, B. (2010). Engineering the Climate: Research Needs and Strategies for International Cooperation U.S. Congress, Committee on Science and Technology.


Hansen, R. S. (2012). Colorado residential property owners and their cloudy right to precipitation capture. Tulsa Law Review, 46, 323-350.

Hardin, G. (1968). The tragedy of the commons. Science, 162, 1243–1248.

Harnisch, S. (2012). Minding the Gap? CE, CO2 abatement, adaptation and the governance of the global climate. Sicherheit und Frieden, 2012:4.

Harris, A. (2012). Should engineers control the eco-system? Engineering & Technology. [Online]

Heartland Institute. (2007). Geo-engineering seen as a practical, cost-effective global warming strategy. Heartlander [Online]. 

Hester, T. (2011). Remaking the world to save it: Applying U.S. environmental laws to climate engineering projects. Ecological Law Quarterly, 38(4). [Online

Hiller, S., Renn, O. (2012). Public perception of geoengineering. Sicherheit und Frieden, 2012:4.

Hogue, C. (2009). Lawmakers consider geoengineering research needs. Chemical & Engineering News. [Online

Horton, J. B. (2011). Geoengineering and the myth of unilateralism: Pressures and prospects for international cooperation. Stanford Journal of Law, Science & Policy. [Online

Horton, J. B. (2015). The emergency framing of solar geoengineering: Time for a different approach. The Anthropocene Review. DOI: 10.1177/2053019615579922.

House, K. J., Baclic, A. C., Ranjan, M., van Nierop, E. A., Wilcox, J., & Herzog, H. J. (2011). Economic and energetic analysis of capturing CO2 from ambient air. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, 108(51), 20428-20433. [Online]

Hulme, M. (2012). Climate change: Climate engineering through stratospheric aerosol injection. Progress in Physical Geography, 36(5), 694–705. [Online]

Hulme, M. (2010). Climate intervention schemes could be undone by geopolitics. [Online]

Humphreys, D. (2011). Smoke and mirrors: Some reflections on the science and politics of geoengineering. The Journal of Environment & Development, 20, 99-120.

Huttunen, S., E. Skyten, M. Hilden. (2014).  Emerging policy perspectives on geoengineering: An international comparison.  The Anthropocene Review (25 Nov] doi:  10.1177/2053019614557958 [Online]


Keith, D. W. & Dowlatabadi, H. (1992). A serious look at geoengineering. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 73, 289-293.

Kintisch, E. (2010). Climate hacking for profit: a good way to go broke. Fortune. [Online

Kintisch, E. (2010). Proposed biodiversity pact bars 'climate-related geoengineering'. ScienceInsider.

Kintisch, E. (2010). 'Asilomar 2' takes small steps toward rules for geoengineering. Science, 328, 22-23.

Kintisch, E. (2010). The politics of climate control. Slate. [Online]

Kriegler, E., Edenhofer, O., Reuster, L., Luderer, G., Klein, D. (2013). Is atmospheric carbon dioxide removal a game changer for climate change mitigation? Climatic Change.[Online]

Klepper, G. (2012). What are the costs and benefits of climate engineering? And can we assess them?. Sicherheit und Frieden, 2012:4.

Klepper, G. Rickels, W. (2012). The real economics of climate engineering. Economics Research International, 1–20. [Online]

Klepper, G., & Rickels, W. (2014). Climate engineering: Economic considerations and research challenges. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy. doi: 10.1093/reep/reu010

Klima, K. et al. (2011). Does it make sense to modify tropical cyclones? A decision-analytic assessment. Environmental Science & Technology, 45, 4242-4246.

Kriegler, E., Edenhofer, O., Reuster, L., Luderer, G., Klein, D. (2013). Is atmospheric carbon dioxide removal a game changer for climate change mitigation? Climatic Change. [Online]

Kosugi, T. (2012). Fail-safe solar radiation management geoengineering. Mitigation and Adaptive Strategies for Global Change. [Online]


Leal-Arcas, R. & Filis, A. (2012). Geoengineering a future for humankind: Some technical and ethical considerations. Carbon and Climate Law Review, 6(2), 128-148 [Online].

Leinen, M. (2008). Building relationships between scientists and business in ocean iron fertilization. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 364, 251-256. 

Lempert, R. J. & Prosnitz, D. (2011). Governing geoengineering research: A political and technical vulnerability analysis. (TR 846) RAND Corporation. [Online]

Levinson, R. & Akbari, H. (2010). Potential benefits of cool roofs on commercial buildings: Conserving energy, saving money, and reducing emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. Energy Efficiency, 3, 53-109.

Lin, A. (2012). Does geoengineering present a moral hazard?. Ecology Law Quarterly (forthcoming). [Online]

Lin, A. C. (2009). Geoengineering governance. Issues in Legal Scholarship, 8, 1-26. 

Lloyd, I.D., and M. Oppenheimer. (2014). On the design of an international governance framework for geoengineering. Global Environmental Politics 14 (2): 45–63.

Lorinc, J. (2011). Climate controlled. The Walrus. [Online]

Luokkanen, M., Huttunen, S., Hilden, M. (2013). Geoengineering, news media and metaphors: Framing the controversial. Public Understanding of Science. (in press) [Online]


Maas, A., Scheffran, J. (2012). Climate conflicts 2.0? Climate engineering as a challenge for international peace and security. Sicherheit und Frieden, 2012:4.

MacMynowski, D. G. et al. (2011). Can we test geoengineering? Energy & Environmental Science, 4, 5044-5052. [Online

Macnaghten, P. & Owen, R. (2011). Good governance for geoengineering. Nature. [Online]

Macnaghten, P., Szerszynski, B. (2013). Living the global social experiment: An analysis of public discourse on solar radiation management and its implications for governance. Global Environmental Change. (in press)

Markus, T. & Ginzky, H. (2011). Regulating climate engineering: Paradigmatic aspects of the regulation of ocean fertilization. Carbon and Climate Law Review, 4, 477-490.

Marshall, M. (2010). Geoengineering won't undo sea levels rises. The New Scientist, 207, 10.

Mayo-Ramsay, J. (2010). Environmental, legal and social implications of ocean urea fertilization: Sulu sea example. Marine Policy, 34, 831-835.

McCarl, B. et al. (2009). Economics of biochar production, utilization and greenhouse gas offsets. In J.Lehmann & S. Joseph (Eds.), Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology (pp. 341-356). London, England: Earthscan.

McClellan, J. et al. (2010). Geoengineering Cost Analysis. (Rep. No. AR10-182). Aurora Flight Service.

McClellan, J., Keith, D. W., Apt, J. (2012). Cost analysis of stratospheric albedo modification delivery systems. Environmental Research Letters, 7(3), 34019. [Online]

McGlashan, N., Shah, N., Caldecott, B., Workman, M. (2012). High-level techno-economic assessment of negative emissions technologies. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 90(6), 501-510. [Online]

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McLaren, D. (2012). A comparative global assessment of potential negative emissions technologies. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 90(6), 489-500. [Online]

Meadowcroft, J. (2013). Exploring negative territory: Carbon dioxide removal and climate policy initiatives. Climatic Change, 118, 137-149.

Meinshausen, M., et al. (2009). Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 C. Nature, 458, 1158-1162.

Mercer, A. M. & Keith, D. W. S. J. D. (2011). Public understanding of solar radiation management. Environmental Research Letters. [Online

Michaelson, J. (2012). Geoengineering and climate management: From marginality to inevitability. Tulsa Law Review, 46, 221-260.

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Michaelson, J. (2012). Geoengineering and climate management: From marginality to inevitability. Tulsa Law Review, 46, 221-260.

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Millard-Ball, A. (2012). The Tuvalu syndrome. Can geoengineering solve climate's collective action problem?. Climatic Change, 110, 1047-1066. [Online]

Morgan, M. G. & Steinbruner, J. D. (2010, March 10). Developing an International Framework for Geoengineering. Council on Foreign Relations. 

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Nisbet, M. C. (2009). Communicating climate change: Why frames matter. Environment, 51(2), 12-23.

Nolt, J. (2011). Greenhouse gas emission and the domination of posterity. In D. Arnold (Ed.), The Ethics of Global Climate Change (pp. 60-76). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. 


Olson, R. L. (2012): Soft geoengineering: A gentler approach to addressing climate change. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development 54(5), 29–39. [Online]

Olson, R. L. (2011). Geoengineering for Decision Makers. Woodrow Wilson Center Report (Rep. No. STP 02). [Online 

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Parker, A. (2014). Governing solar geoengineering research as it leaves the laboratory.  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 372 (2031), 20140173, doi: 10.1098/rsta.2014.0173 [online

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Parthasarathy, S., Rayburn, L., Anderson, M., Mannisto, J., Maguire, M., & Najib, D. (2010). Geoengineering in the Arctic: Defining the governance dilemma (Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program Working Paper 10-3, Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University of Michigan). 

Parson, E. & Ernst, L. N. (2012). International governance of climate engineering. UCLA School of Law. [Online

Parson, E. A., Keith, D. W. (2013). End the deadlock on governance of geoengineering research. Science 339(6125), 1278–1279. [Online]

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Pearce, F. (2010). What the UN ban on geoengineering really means. The New Scientist, 208, 15.

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Pielke Jr., R. (2009). A Perspective Paper on Climate Engineering. Copenhagen Consensus Center.

Pielke, Jr. R. A. (2009). An idealized assessment of the economics of air capture of carbon dioxide in mitigation policy. Environmental Science & Policy, 12, 216-225.

Poumadere M. et al. (2011). Public perceptions and governance of controversial technologies to tackle climate change: nuclear power, carbon capture and storage, wind, and geoengineering.  WIRES Climate Change 2:712-727. doi: doi/10.1002/wcc.134. [online]

Powell, H. (2008). Dumping iron and trading carbon. Oceanus, 46, 22-25.

Prantl, J. (2011). Why we need a debate about geoengineering governance . . . Now. NTS Alert. [Online]

Proelss, A. (2012). Geoengineering and international law. Sicherheit und Frieden, 2012:4.

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Rayner, S., Redgwell, C., & Savulescu, J. (2009). Memorandum on Draft Principles for the Conduct of Geoengineering Research. House of Commons Science and Technology Committee Enquiry into the Regulation of Geoengineering. [Online

Rayner, S. (2011). Climate change and geoengineering governance. Centre for Non-Traditional Security Studies. [Online

Reardon, J. (2007). Democratic mis-haps: The problem of democratization in a time of biopolitics. BioSocieties, 2(2), 239-256.

Redgwell, C. (2011). Geoengineering the climate: Technological solutions to mitigation – Failure or continuing carbon addiction? Carbon and Climate Law Review, 2, 178-189.

Reynolds, J. (2011). The regulation of climate engineering research. Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology and Society (TILT). [Online]

Reynolds, J. (2011). The regulation of climate engineering. Law, Innovation and Technology, 3, 113-130.

Reynolds, L. & Szerszynski, B. (2007). The role of participation in a techno-scientific controversy (Participatory Governance and Institutional Innovation Contract No. CIT2-CT-2004-505791, Deliverable No. 16: 6th EU Framework Program for Research and Technology). [Online

Ricke, K. L. (2011). Characterizing Impacts and Implications of Proposals for Solar Radiation Management, a Form of Climate Engineering. Carnegie Mellon University.

Ricke, K. et al. (2008). Unilateral geoengineering. Non-technical Briefing Notes for a Workshop At the Council on Foreign Relations.

Ricke, K. L., Moreno-Cruz, J. B., Caldeira, K. (2013). Strategic incentives for climate geoengineering coalitions to exclude broad participation. Environ. Res. Lett. 8(1), 14021. [Online]

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Rickels, W., Rehdanz, K., & Oschlies, A. (2010). Methods for greenhouse gas offset accounting: A case study of ocean iron fertilization. Ecological Economics, 69, 2495-2509.

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Royal Society (2009). Geoenginering the climate: science, governance and uncertainty 

Royal Society (2011). Solar radiation management: the governance of research.


Sagarin, R. et al. (2007). Iron fertilization in the ocean for climate mitigation: Legal, economic, and environmental challenges. The Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions at Duke University.

Santillo, D. & Johnston, P. (2010). Governance of geoengineering research cannot be left to voluntary codes of conduct. The Geoengineering Quarterly. [Online]

Sarewitz, D. & Nelson, R. X. (2008). Three rules for technological fixes. Nature, 456, 871-872.

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Scott, K. N. (2005). The day after tomorrow: Ocean CO2 sequestration and the future of climate change. Georgetown International Environmental Law Review, 45.

Schnellnhuber, H. J. (2011). Geoengineering: The good, the MAD, and the sensible. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(51), 20277-20278. [Online]

Scholte, S., Vasileiadou, E., Petersen, A. C. (2013). Opening up the societal debate on climate engineering: how newspaper frames are changing. Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences, 1–16. [Online]

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Sikka, T. (2012). A critical discourse analysis of geoengineering advocacy. Critical Discourse Studies 9(2), 163–175. [Online]

Sikka, T. (2012). A critical theory of technology applied to the public discussion of geoengineering. Technology in Society 34(2), (109–117). [Online]

Sikka, T. (2013). An analysis of the connection between climate change, technological solutions and potential disaster management: The contribution of geoengineering research. Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management, 535-551. [Online]

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Steffen, A. (2009). Geoengineering and the New Climate Denialism. WorldChanging. [Online

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