Our Faculty and Staff

Adrea Lawrence

Dean & Professor


ED 321C
(406) 243-5054


Ph.D., Educational Leadership and Policy Studies (2006)

Indiana University, Bloomington, IN

Dissertation Title:  Unraveling the White Man’s Burden:  A Critical Microhistory of Federal Indian Education Policy Implementation at Santa Clara Pueblo, 1902-1907

Minor:  History

M.A., Secondary Social Studies Instruction and Curriculum (1998)

University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO

B.A., American Studies (1995)

University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO, magna cum laude


Professional Teacher License, Secondary Social Studies, Colorado, January 2001

Provisional Teacher License, Secondary Social Studies, Colorado, January 1998

Research Interests

I am an education historian.  Most of my colleagues know me as someone who has studied American Indian histories and their corresponding education histories.  After studying this field for a number of years, and having tinkered with a variety of different digital and analog platforms, I am increasingly interested in how people think about their past and their relationships to their own pasts and those of people with whom they are connected.  This means that I am looking at established patterns across various popular corpora as well as gaps in those same bodies of literature that, in hindsight, should not be there based on individuals’ and groups’ experiences.  I am interested in learning, how it manifests as education, and how it continues to beget itself in social environments.  This means that I’m very curious about how researchers approach their studies, and I’m interested in how people have discerned meaning and figured out different ways to live in their worlds.  There are many ways of doing so.


Editing and Curating

Education's Histories, www.educationshistories.org

Book Project

Lawrence, A.  Fear, Honor, and Amnesia in Learning to Colonize the American West.

Field of Study

History of Education; American Indian History



Lessons from an Indian Day School:  Negotiating Colonization in Northern New Mexico, 1902-1907.  Lawrence:  University Press of Kansas, 2011.

This book is an education history, but it is not about the school.  Rather, it uses the school as a prism to study the educative processes associated with colonization and racialization in the American West.  Specifically, Lessons from an Indian Day School is a microhistory, or ethnographic reconstruction, of federal Indian policy implementation along the Rio Grande Valley during the first decade of the twentieth century.  Drawing from the correspondence between Clara D. True, a Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) day school teacher stationed at Santa Clara Pueblo, and Clinton J. Crandall, the superintendent of the Santa Fe Indian School and the northern Pueblos region, this book examines how federal Indian policy was interpreted and appropriated by a variety of actors during an intense period of colonization in the United States.  Through the sites of the Santa Clara day school and the Santa Fe Indian School, U.S. government agents, Pueblo Indians, and Hispanos actively negotiated federal Indian policy from positions within their respective communities and appropriated—thereby making—policy to suit their own needs and desires.

Book Chapters

Lawrence, A. (2019).  Precolonial Education in the Western Hemisphere and Pacific.  In Eileen Tamura and John Rury (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of the History of Education.  New York: Oxford University Press.

Lawrence, A. (2013).  Learning How to Write Traditional and Digital History.  In Jack Dougherty and Kristen Nawrotski (Eds.), Writing History: How Historians Research, Write, and Publish in the Digital Age.  Ann Arbor:  University of Michigan Press.  http://writinghistory.wp.trincoll.edu/.

Lawrence, A. (2011). “Lessons of Colonization: Uni- and Multi-Directional Learning in Pueblo Indian Country.” In Heike Niedrig and Christian Ydesen (Eds.), Writing Postcolonial Histories of Intercultural Education. Vol. 2. Intercultural Pedagogy and Postcolonial Theory. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Verlag.

Lawrence, A. (2009). “Educating the ‘Savage’ and the ‘Civilized’:  The Santa Clara Pueblo Indians at the 1904 St. Louis Expo.”  In R. Winkle-Wagner, C. Hunter, J.D.H. Ortloff. (Eds.), Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice in Educational Research:  Methods at the Margins (pp. 147-158).  New York:  Palgrave Macmillan.

Lawrence, A. (2009). “Uncloaking Epistemologies through Methodology.”  In R. Winkle-Wagner, C. Hunter, J.D.H. Ortloff. (Eds.), Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice in Educational Research:  Methods at the Margins (pp. 79-83).  New York:  Palgrave Macmillan.

Refereed Articles

Lawrence, A. (2014). “Epic Learning in an Indian Pueblo: A Framework for Studying Multigenerational Learning in the History of Education.” History of Education Quarterly. 54(3): 286-302.

Lawrence, A. (2014).  “Our Trickster, the School.”  [serialized article]  Education’s Histories.  http://www.educationshistories.org.

Part 1:  Lawrence, A. “Our Trickster, the School.”  [serialized article]  Education’s Histories, May 1, 2014.  http://www.educationshistories.org/trickster-school-part-1/.

Part 2:  Lawrence, A. “Our Trickster, the School.”  [serialized article]  Education’s Histories, May 8, 2014.  http://www.educationshistories.org/trickster-school-part-2/.

Part 3:  Lawrence, A. “Our Trickster, the School.”  [serialized article]  Education’s Histories, May 15, 2014.  http://www.educationshistories.org/trickster-school-part-3/.

Part 4:  Lawrence, A. “Our Trickster, the School.”  [serialized article]  Education’s Histories, May 22, 2014.  http://www.educationshistories.org/trickster-school-part-4/.

Lawrence, A., Cooke, B. (2010). “Law, Language, and Land:  A Multi-method Analysis of the General Allotment Act and Its Discourses.”  Qualitative Inquiry. 16(3), 217-229.

Lawrence, A. (2008).  “’How do you know what to ask?’:  Disciplinary Epistemologies and Heuristics in the Academy and Secondary Social Studies Classrooms.”  International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences. 3(9), 121-128.

Winstead, T., Lawrence, A., Brantmeier, E., and Frey, C. (2008).  “Language, Sovereignty, Cultural Contestation and American Indian Schools:  No Child Left Behind and a Navajo Test Case.” Journal of American Indian Education.  47(1), 46-64.

Lawrence, A.  (1995).  The Christian Pacific.  The Colorado Historian. 3(2), 39-46.


Lawrence, A. (2015). “Remedying Our Amnesia.” Education’s Historieshttp://www.educationshistories.org/remedying-amnesia/.

Book Reviews

Lawrence, A. (2017). A review of Three Roads to Magdalena: Coming of Age in a Southwest Borderland, 1890-1990. History of Education Quarterly. 57(4), 626-628.

Lawrence, A. (2017). A review of Carlisle Indian Industrial School: Indigenous Histories, Memories, and Reclamations. Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth. 10(3), 466-467.

Lawrence, A. (2016).  A review of Education at the Edge of Empire: Negotiating Pueblo Identity in New Mexico’s Indian Boarding Schools.  History of Education Quarterly. 56(1), 188-192.

Lawrence, A. (2015).  A review of Native tongues:  Colonialism and the race from encounter to the reservation.  Journal of American History. 102(3), 853.

Lawrence, A. (2015). Chronicling American Indian Schooling:  A Review of Two Books About Two Indian Schools. Reviews in American History. 43(4), 658-664.

Lawrence, A. (2013).  A review of The Allotment Plot: Alice C. Fletcher, E. Jane Gay, and Nez Perce Survivance.  Journal of American History. 100(2), 548.

Lawrence, A. (2013).  What about North America?  A review of Empire and Education:  A history of greed and goodwill from the War of 1898 to the War on Terror.  American Education History Journal. 40(1), 180-184.

Lawrence, A. (2012).  A review of Federal fathers and mothers:  A social history of the United States Indian Service, 1869-1933.  Ethnohistory. 59(3), 645-646.

Lawrence, A. (2012).  A review of Urban Indian in Phoenix Schools, 1940-2000 by Stephen Kent Amerman.  H-Education.  http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=35021.

Lawrence, A. (2011).  A review of The hope for American school reform: The cold war pursuit of inquiry learning in social studies by Ronald W. Evans.  History of Education Quarterly. 51(4), 554-557.

Lawrence, A. (2010).  A review of Making the grade: Plucky schoolmarms of Kittitas County by Barb Owen.  Journal of the West. 48(4), 138.

Lawrence, A. (2008).  A review of Roots of resistance: A history of land tenure in New Mexico by Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz.  Journal of the West. 47(3), 99.

Lawrence, A. (2008).  A review of Hiníno’éínoo3ítoono: Arapaho historical traditions by Andrew Cowell and Alonzo Moss, Sr.  Journal of the West. 47(3), 98.

Lawrence, A. (2008).  A review of Learning to write “Indian”:  The boarding-school experience and American Indian literature by Amelia V. Katanski.  History of Education Quarterly.  48(2), 316-318.

Lawrence, A. (2006).  A review of Hearts west:  True stories of mail-order brides on the frontier by Chris Enss.  Journal of the West.  45(1), 91.

Lawrence, A. (2006). A review of Feast of souls:  Indians and Spaniards in the seventeenth century missions of Florida and New Mexico by Robert C. Galgano.  Journal of the West.  45(2), 86-8

Tool Reviews

Clark, S. and Lawrence, A. (2014). “Tool Review: Working in Wordpress and InDesign.” Education’s Histories.  http://www.educationshistories.org/tool-review-indesign-wordpress/.

iOS Applications

Communal Bison Hunting on the Northern Plains in the Dog Days. (2015).  

In collaboration with Matthew Schertz, Austin Herron, Chris Murphy, Andreas Freiburg, Austin Roos, Jamie Blixt, Andrea Burke, Colleen Davies, Willow Timothy, Greg Harrison, Max Jacobson, Melissa Hammett, and Heidi Hanks


Lawrence, A. (2001).  Twentieth century economic opportunities.  Littleton, CO:  Littleton Public Schools.

Lawrence, A. (2000).  Voyage of thought across Asia and the Middle East.  Denver, CO:  Colorado Department of Education.


American Historical Association

History of Education Society


National Council for the Social Studies

Organization of American Historians

Specialized Skills

Archival research

Digital humanities


Scholarly communications

Professional Experience

Dean, Phyllis J. Washington College of Education and Human Sciences (2019-Present)University of Montana, Missoula, MT

Interim Dean, Phyllis J. Washington College of Education and Human Sciences (2018-2019)University of Montana, Missoula, MT

Professor, Phyllis J. Washington College of Education and Human Sciences (2018-Present)University of Montana, Missoula, MT

Associate Professor, Phyllis J. Washington College of Education and Human Sciences (2013-2018)University of Montana, Missoula, MT

Associate Professor, School of Education, Teaching & Health (2012-2013) Assistant Professor, School of Education, Teaching & Health (2006-2012) Affiliate Faculty, Department of History American University, Washington, DC (2006-2013)

Associate Instructor, Educational Leadership and Policy Studies Indiana University, Bloomington, IN (2002-2005)

Program Instructor, United States Institute of Peace Washington, DC (June 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005)

Social Studies Teacher, Heritage High School Littleton Public Schools, Littleton, CO (August 1998-May 2002)

International Experience

Studied at the University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, 1993

Studied at Himmelew Gymnasium, Roskilde, Denmark, 1991


Honors / Awards


Chancellor’s Fellow, Indiana University, 2002-2006

Beechler Fellowship Recipient, Indiana University, Summer 2004

Kappa Delta Pi, 1997

Phi Beta Kappa, 1995

Magna cum laude, Bachelor of Arts, University of Colorado at Boulder, 1995

American Studies Honor Society, 1995

Academic Grant, The Colorado College, 1991-1992


History of Education Society’s Outstanding Book Award, Honorable Mention, 2012

History of Education Society’s Claude A. Eggertsen Dissertation Prize, Honorable Mention, 2007

Selected for inclusion in Who’s Who Among America’s Teachers, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2005

Sallie Mae First Class Teacher Award, 1999