Topography Weather

Project Summary

TopoWx (“Topography Weather”) is an 800-meter resolution gridded dataset of daily minimum and maximum air temperature for the conterminous U.S. The objective of TopoWx is to provide gridded temperature estimates that accurately capture both (1) locally relevant topoclimate spatial patterns; and (2) regional climate variability and trends. TopoWx gridded temperature estimates are based on historical daily station observations, digital elevation model (DEM) variables, atmospheric reanalysis data, and MODIS land skin temperature. Interpolation procedures include moving window regression kriging and geographically weighted regression. To better ensure temporal consistency, all input station observations are homogenized using the GHCN/USHCN Pairwise Homogenization Algorithm.


TopoWx data are now available through the Network for Sustainable Climate Risk Management (SCRiM) at Penn State. Please update bookmarks and links accordingly.


  • Oyler, J.W., A. Ballantyne, K. Jencso, M. Sweet, and S.W. Running (2014), Creating a topoclimatic daily air temperature dataset for the conterminous United States using homogenized station data and remotely sensed land skin temperature. Int. J. Climatol..
  • Oyler, J.W., S.Z. Dobrowski, A.P. Ballantyne, A.E. Klene, and S.W. Running (2015), Artificial amplification of warming trends across the mountains of the western United States. Geophys. Res. Lett.
  • Oyler, J.W., S.Z. Dobrowski, Z.A. Holden, and S.W. Running (2016), Remotely sensed land skin temperature as a spatial predictor of air temperature across the conterminous United States. J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol.

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